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基督教箴言报 本拉登的马克思主义新形象

上一篇 / 下一篇  2007-09-14 10:28:42


  在缺席三年后,本拉登重新露面,不过这一次带来新的形象和新的信息。本拉登以更年轻的面貌出现,给出他自九十年代初期以来最具意识形态色彩的致辞,以马克思和社会主义术语攻击资本主义和自由民主。事实上,比起他的一些手提步枪的基地组织军团,这个新的本拉登听起来更像是马克思主义革命家切·格瓦拉(Che Guevara)。

  本拉登经典的军国主义外观消失了。他把打仗的制服和卡拉什尼科夫冲锋枪换成白色长袍、圆帽和米色大衣,赋予他牧师智慧的光环。这个新的本拉登把自己描述成精神人物,而不是年老的战士。

  他灰色的胡子染成黑色,裁减整齐,这实际上是可以追溯到伊斯兰教诞生的老传统;据说先知穆罕默德在战争中染黑头发,并建议他的指挥官和士兵染黑他们的头发,让敌人恐惧。

  在录像中,本拉登向美国人致辞,责骂经济剥削、跨国公司和全球化的弊病。他告诉他们要把自己从“资本主义体系的欺骗、束缚和耗损中”解放出来。类似于他煽动穆斯林反抗压迫、“叛教”统治者和爱管闲事的西方,本拉登如今似乎是试图唤起美国人反抗自己苛刻的社会经济和政治制度。

  这位曾是拥有数百万家财的商人的人对着摄像机说,“可怜而受剥削的美国人,团结起来反抗你们让富者越富贫者越贫的资本主义法律。”本拉登之前从来没有在向美国人民的声明中使用马克思主义的雄壮语言。而且,他说,穆斯林和美国人都一样;他们都是资本主义制度的受害者,这种制度“旨在以‘全球化’之名把全世界变成大公司的封地,以保护民主政治。”

  在过去,本拉登强调文化和宗教冲突是对峙的基础,他如今大谈受害者的共性和苦难。他把伊拉克和阿富汗的悲剧、非洲的贫穷、以及许多(美国)人在利益相关的债务、愚蠢的税收和房地产抵押包袱下步履蹒跚归咎于资本和阶级的全球体系。据新的本拉登的说法,大资本、阶级利益和跨国公司——而不是宗教和文化——要为永久的战争和杀戮负责。

  尽管新的录像背离他一贯的宗教论调,但本拉登告诉美国人要皈依,因为伊斯兰教将“解放”他们,让他们摆脱“大公司的好战所有者。”宗教被说成解决剥削的资本和战争产业危机的手段。

  本拉登有意或无意地冒险进入一个新的意识形态地形。他在模糊圣战救世与马克思主义乌托邦之间的界限,而马克思主义可能反过来让他顽固的沙拉菲(Salafi)支持者失去平衡。

  激进的沙拉菲主义是逊尼派伊斯兰内部的一个强硬派系,严格遵守可兰经的字面诠释,怀疑哲学创新。马克思主义的唯物史观与基地组织的伊斯兰主义品牌相矛盾。

  沙拉菲会怎样对待本拉登最近强调以社会主义而不是以可兰经合法性批判西方资本主义民主的选择?激进伊斯兰主义者很可能为他们亲爱的教长(sheikh)的出现而兴高采烈,但同时对他的意识形态语言和提及的术语感到迷惑。

  当美国官员从录像带中仔细观察新袭击的线索时,他们似乎忽略了它的战略宣传价值。本拉登并没有给出在美国国内袭击的信号。基地组织中心和美国已经在开战,而且这些日子里的行动指挥官显然是基地组织的第二号人物扎瓦西里(Ayman al-Zawahiri),而不是本拉登。

  本拉登的致辞是争取人心的意识形态之争中的新转折,主要是因为它的目标是西方人和美国人。显然,本拉登和他的高级同僚有信心把他们的宣传运动扩大到另一场战争——思想的战争。(原标题:本拉登的新形象:更年轻,更马克思主义;作者:Fawaz A. Gerges)

Bin Laden's new image: younger, more Marxist The former multimillionaire now blames global capitalism and class for the tragedies in Iraq and Afghanistan. By Fawaz A. Gerges

from the September 13, 2007 edition

BRONXVILLE, N.Y. - AFTER A THREE-YEAR absence, Osama bin Laden has resurfaced in another of his rousing videotapes, only this time with a new image and a new message. Projecting a younger look, Mr. bin Laden gives his most ideological address since the early 1990s with an assault on capitalism and liberal democracy loaded with Marxist and socialist terms. Indeed, this new bin Laden sounds more like Che Guevara, the Marxist revolutionary, than some of his rifle-toting Al Qaeda cohorts.

Gone is bin Laden's vintage militaristic appearance. He has exchanged his fatigues and Kalashnikov for a white robe, circular cap, and beige cloak, giving him an aura of clerical wisdom. The new bin Laden portrays himself as a spiritual figure, not a grizzled soldier.

His gray beard is dyed black and trimmed neatly, which is actually an old tradition dating back to the birth of Islam; the prophet Muhammad reportedly dyed his hair and recommended, while at war, that his commanders and soldiers dye theirs to strike fear in the enemy.

In the video, bin Laden addresses Americans and rails against the ills of economic exploitation, multinational corporations, and globalization. He tells them to liberate themselves from "the deception, shackles, and attrition of the capitalist system." Similar to his incitement of Muslims against their oppressive, "apostate" rulers and the meddlesome West, bin Laden now seems to be trying to galvanize Americans against their own harsh socioeconomic and political system.

"Poor and exploited Americans, unite against your capitalist laws that make the rich richer and the poor poorer," the former multimillionaire businessman tells the camera. Never before has bin Laden utilized the grandiose language of Marxism in his statements to the American people. And yet, he says, Muslims and Americans are alike; they are both victims of the capitalist system, which "seeks to turn the entire world into a fiefdom of the major corporations under the label of 'globalization' in order to protect democracy."

While in the past bin Laden emphasized the clash of cultures and religions as the basis for confrontation, he now talks about commonalities of victimhood and suffering. He blames the global system of capital and class for the tragedies in Iraq and Afghanistan, the poverty of Africa, and "the reeling of many [Americans] under the burden of interest-related debts, insane taxes, and real estate mortgages." According to the new bin Laden, big capital, class interests, and multinationals – not religion or culture – are responsible for perpetuating war and killing.

Similarly, bin Laden had never before made distinctions between the American people and their leaders, but now he says that Americans, like Muslims, are victims of profiteering and the corporations that control the political process and media.

Even though this new video is a dramatic departure from his usual religious rhetoric, bin Laden tells Americans to convert because Islam will set them "free," ridding them of the "warmongering owners of the major corporations." Religion is offered as a means to resolve the crisis of exploitative capital and war industry.

Surprisingly, the son of Arabia, known for his religious intolerance and fanaticism, is eager not to offend the religious sensibility of Americans. He urges them to read the Koran and learn firsthand about Islam and how the "prophet" Jesus and his mother are mentioned dozens of times. "Don't be turned away from Islam by the terrible situation of the Muslims today," he says, reading from papers in front of him, "for our rulers in general abandoned Islam many decades ago, but our fore-fathers were the leaders and pioneers of the world for many centuries, when they held firmly to Islam."

Intentionally or unintentionally, bin Laden is venturing into a new ideological terrain. He is blurring the lines between jihadist messianism and Marxist utopia, which might, in turn, throw his die-hard Salafi supporters off balance.

Militant Salafism, a hard-line sect within Sunni Islam, follows a literalist interpretation of the Koran and is suspicious of philosophical innovation. Marx's conception of material history, rendered exclusively in terms of economic impulses, is thus incompatible with Al Qaeda's brand of Islamicism.

What will Salafis make of bin Laden's recent choice to emphasize a socialist critique of Western capitalist-democracy rather than Koranic legitimization? Militant Islamists are most likely elated by the emergence of their beloved sheikh, but at the same time bewildered by his ideological language and terms of references.

While US officials scrutinize the video for clues of new attacks, they seem to be losing sight of its strategic propagandist value. Bin Laden does not have to give signals to strike inside the US. Al Qaeda Central and the US are already waging war, and Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's No. 2, is apparently the operational commander these days, not bin Laden.

Bin Laden's address is a new twist in the ideological struggle for hearts and minds, mostly because it targets Westerners and Americans. Obviously, bin Laden and his senior associates feel confident to expand their propaganda campaign in the other war – the war of ideas.

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